-by Jon Bergmann-
This month’s #1 study in the top 10 is one that those of you doing Flipped Learning research absolutely must read. FLGI Research Fellow Dr. Gwo-Jen Hwang and Chung Kwan Lo have charted an essential roadmap for the future of Flipped Learning research. Of the 83 studies I reviewed, this one definitely deserved the top spot.
The next two studies (#2 and #3) are meta-studies that examine large numbers of studies and look for patterns. These studies certainly support the fact that implementing Flipped Learning is making significant improvements in a wide variety of areas and arenas.
I was especially intrigued by #6 where they charted flipped and non-flipped classes. Though many studies show that students in flipped classrooms outperform students in non-flipped classes, this particular study reported that initially flipped classes did worse than the non-flipped classes. However, as the semester went on, students in the flipped classes began to outperform the non-flipped classes. Therefore, this confirms that sticking with Flipped Learning in the long-term has a big payoff. I have seen many teachers and professors who have given up on Flipped Learning who I believe were on the cusp of making a breakthrough. We need to realize that transitioning to a flipped classroom is also hard on the students. They need time to adjust to the new paradigm as well.
The other studies continue to show that Flipped Learning is not just another teaching style, but rather a Meta-Strategy that supports all others: #9 – Cooperative Learning and #10 – Problem-Based Learning.
|#1||FLGI Research Fellow Dr. Gwo-Jen Hwang and Chung Kwan Lo (Taiwan) wrote an incisive paper entitled How to advance our understanding of flipped learning: Directions and a descriptive framework for future research. The paper suggests a framework or roadmap for future studies by researchers who are studying Flipped Learning. The diagram below shows suggested areas. If you are researching Flipped Learning and/or you only have time to read one paper about Flipped Learning, this is the one!|
|#2||Iranian professors H. Kaviani, M. Liaghatdar, and Y. Abediny did a comprehensive overview of the research on Flipped Learning. They examined 1084 papers and analyzed 100 research articles. Their question was how flipped classrooms affect curriculum design. Their synthesis indicated that… “According to the findings Curriculum Design in the flipped classroom includes a change in the structure of classroom which has defined different and new roles and responsibilities for teachers and learners.”|
|#3||Shuhan Zhang (Hong Kong) did a systemic meta-analysis of Flipped Learning research in K-12 and tertiary science. He found that Flipped Learning shows a significant increase in student achievement. He further found that the benefits of Flipped Learning included “higher flexibility to learn outside lecture time, greater participation and engagement in class…”|
|#4||Katsuyuki Umezawa and others (Japan) compared a traditional flipped class with a grouped flipped class. In the group flipped class the class time was divided into three “groups.” Those who did not do the pre-work, those that did the pre-work and didn’t fully understand it, and those who did the pre-work and did understand. The Grouped Flipped Class showed significant improvement over the traditional flipped class. This is a classic illustration of the Differential (Df) strategy found the Global Elements of Effective Flipped Learning.|
|#5||Minsun Kim (South Korea) and others examined how well students with different learning styles performed in a dental school flipped class. They found that students categorized as “thinking types” did better than “feeling types.” Further, they found women outperformed men.|
|#6||Chaya Gopalan (Illinois, USA) compared flipped to traditional teaching in an introductory physiology course and found that Flipped Learning was significantly better. The interesting thing about this study was that they found that the flipped group scored lower on the first exam (out of three) but got much better on exams 2 and 3. This suggests that it is important to stick with Flipped Learning as there is an adaptation phase for both the students and teachers.|
|#7||Weichao Chen and Elizabeth Bradley (Virginia, USA) conducted deep interviews with medical students in a flipped classroom. Their findings showed the importance of changing the evaluation systems when Flipped Learning is used. This supports the Global Standard, Ca (Choice in Assessments) which states “Design assessments where students have a choice in how they will present their mastery of the concepts.”|
|#8||Mohamed Ibrahim and Rebecca Callaway found that pre-service teachers who have been taught science methods using a flipped approach develop more self-efficacy and are more likely to flip their classes.|
|#9||Thai researchers Thanaset Chavangklang and Suksan Suppasetseree used Flipped Learning coupled with cooperative learning and found students had significant improvement in reading comprehension, and positive opinions about learning with this method. This study again shows how Flipped Learning continues to be the Meta-Strategy that supports all other active learning strategies.|
|#10||Per Lysgaard (Denmark) demonstrated how problem-based learning and Flipped Learning intersect. He concluded that “The flipped learning method can create opportunities for problem-based teaching. There is no contradiction between problem-based teaching and flipped learning if the students experience the freedom inherent in a flipped classroom approach as compared to a traditional didactic setting.” Again, this demonstrates that Flipped Learning is a Meta-Strategy that supports all others.|
Flipped Learning Review (FLR) is the first magazine dedicated to covering the global evolution of flipped learning as the meta-strategy for active learning. FLR is published by FL Global Publishing an imprint of the Flipped Learning Global Initiative. For all inquiries. Please contact us here.