-by Jon Bergmann-
The overriding theme from this month’s research top 10 can be summed up in two words: innovative combination. Flipped Learning is being utterly transformed as teachers combine it with other strategies such as makerspaces, gamification, formative assessments, team-based learning, peer-instruction, and simulated teaching. So if you are looking for what to do next in your flipped journey, grab one of these more in-depth strategies and incorporate it into your everyday practice.
After reviewing 65 studies and articles, I had a hard time picking the top 10. So many great Flipped Learning 3.0 studies. Instead of asking if Flipped Learning works, they ask, “How can we enhance and extend Flipped Learning?”
Gamification seems to be a trend as three separate studies showed how learning is enhanced when you add gamification to your flipped class (see #1). Also two studies (see #9 and #10) showed how Flipped Learning helps students on the margins. One study looked at how Flipped Learning transforms the teacher/professor-student relationship (#8). And one asks the question, Why isn’t Flipped Learning being more widely adopted? (#7)
| #1a ||A study on gamification and Flipped Learning by Biyun Huang and Khe Foon Hew from The University of Hong Kong. They asked if the effect of students completing work was enhanced when you gamfied both the pre-class work and the class work. They found that students in a gamified flipped class completed more work and “produced higher quality work than the control class.” This answers one of the big questions asked by everybody in Flipped Learning: How do I get the students to do the work? How about you gamify the pre-class work? They also developed a simple framework for gamification using the acronym GAFCC (Goal, Access, Feedback, Challenge, Collaboration)|
| #1b ||A study on gamification and Flipped Learning by Zamzami Zainuddin (also from the University of Hong Kong), looked at overall student achievement and found that the gamified flipped class was superior to the non-gamified flipped class. |
| #1c ||A study on gamification and Flipped Learning by Dominik Dolezal (University of Applied Sciences Technikum Wien, Austria) found that student response to the game-based flipped class was “extraordinarily positive.”|
| #2 ||J Park, YH Park, J Kim, J Cha, and S Kim looked at the effect of having embedded programing exercises in screencasts on learning outcomes. They found that when you went beyond simple quizzes, students learned better and professors chunked the pre-class work better. This study takes the pre-class work to the next level and gives students a more immersive and interactive experience. |
| #3 ||Olga Igorevna Shaykina and Mikhail Grigoryevich Minin (Russia) mixed Flipped Learning with adaptive technology in a teaching foreign language skills. Their results were astounding. Student learning was significantly increased and student satisfaction was off the charts. |
| #4 ||Ying Chen, Fei Lang, Zeguang Lu, and Hui Shi (China) used WeChat and Peer Instruction with Flipped Learning. They found this combination increased student participation in class activities. |
| #5 ||Sanghoon Park and others at the University of South Florida used Flipped Learning to teach college engineering students how to use their innovative Maker Space. Their ultimate goal was to get student to effectively use the space to design and create, but they needed a way to teach the basics. Flipped Learning proved to be a successful way to do this. |
| #6 ||Thiruselvi Subramaniam, Pavanam Sasha Valuyeetham, and Tay Jun Siang (Malysa) published in the Education in Medicine Journal a study which asked if Flipped Learning coupled with simulated teaching on airway and ventilation during accidents was a more effective model. They found student performance improved and the levels of engagement were enhanced. |
| #7 ||An interesting study out of New Zealand by Lakshmi Chellapan, looked at why professors were slow to adopt Flipped Learning. They concluded that “a lack of understanding of the Flipped Classroom Model concept may be a possible reason that some participants steered away from adopting the model. In addition, assumptions about students’ inability to embrace autonomous learning were also shown to be reasons why some participants did not want to adopt the Flipped Model.” This is insightful in that gets to some of the root causes as to why Flipped Learning is not being adopted as much as we think it should be. |
| #8 ||Napatcha Pradubthong and others studied the effectiveness of Flipped Learning with university software engineering students. They concluded that students in Flipped Learning classes performed better in “creative thinking, critical thinking, communication problem-solving, and working participation.” They further concluded that Flipped Learning transformed the professors as they better understood the learning needs of their students. This finding is what I see as most significant in this study. It shows us that flipping transforms the student-teacher relationship on a cognitive level.|
| #9 ||Gemma Abío and others (Universitat de Barcelona) studied students who were repeating courses. These students were not successful on their first attempt. They combined flipped classroom, team-based learning and frequent testing. They concluded that this was highly effective. This study has two very interesting findings. (1) Combining Flipped Learning with other active strategies is critical. (2) Flipped Learning is very effective for struggling students. |
| #10 ||Chad T. Kishimoto and others at University of San Diego studied the effect of flipping a large enrollment introductory physics class. They found significant gains in student learning and found “that the gender gap typically seen in the introductory physics sequence is significantly reduced in the flipped classroom.” This study illustrates how Flipped Learning is helping students who have typically struggled in courses.|
Other Notable Research
- Ziling Xu and Yeli Shi from Zhejiang Ocean University (China) wrote a thought piece about the connection between Flipped Learning and Constructivist Educational philosophy. They concluded that Flipped Learning relies heavily upon a constructivist theory that further strengthens Flipped Learning as a legitimate framework.
- Fatih Balaman (Mustafa Kemal University, Turkey) studied what goes into making quality instructional videos by analyzing video viewing habits of over 450 high school students. He found that (1) the videos should be between 5-10 minutes maximum, (2) the presenter should be very well organized, and (3) starting the video with energy and charisma will increase student understanding. This study seems to be in general common sense but is good to have some solid research behind how to create the best flipped video content.
- Marhaiza Ibrahim, Norhaiza Khairudin, and Danilah Salleh studied the effect of Flipped Learning on communication and thinking skills in an accounting course. They found that Flipped Learning enhanced both skills. This study further reveals that Flipped Learning is not just helping students learn the course content, but it is also helping with many of the more critical “soft” skills that are necessary for today.
- Yulia Guseva and Tomi Kauppinen from Aalto University School of Science, Finland, examined university professor videos and discovered a wide range of video quality and engagement. They concluded that there is a great need to train teachers how to engagingly present content on a video and developed workshops to help their professors.
- Kent F. G. Avery, Carolyn T. Huggan, and Jane P. Preston studied two high school classes in Prince Edward Island (Canada) and found that students learned better with Flipped Learning. What grabbed me was one of their closing comments where they said: “The delivery of education in public schools is at innovative crossroads, and new forms of pedagogy, as reflected in this research, need to be employed if teachers are to supply students with the learning experiences they need for their future success and wellbeing.” I couldn’t agree more. We in education are at an “innovative crossroads.”
- Susan G Hojnacki (Michigan State University) in her doctoral thesis compared students taking introductory German. The control group was not flipped. She found that the flipped group (1) had higher levels of understanding and (2) were more likely to continue onto the next course.
- Dr. Vijay Prakash Anand (Jaipuria Institute of Management, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India) compared Flipped Learning to traditional education with graduate marketing students and found that Flipped Learning proved more efficacious.
- Ingibjörg Frímannsdóttir (Iceland) studied 127 students completion of the flipped pre-work and found that upwards of 90% of students completed the work. He found no difference between students of differing ages.
- Eun Jung Chung and Byoung-Hee Lee (Andong Science College, Republic of Korea – Journal of Problem Based Learning) studied the effect of Flipped Learning on motivation for college-level physical therapy classes. Flipped Learning created greater student motivation for the class.
- Jing Leng and Bo Zhu (China) looked at the effect of Flipped Learning in a Computer Design course and found that Flipped Learning is a more effective method.
- Diego Leonardo Avendaño Saquisilí (UNIVERSIDAD DE CUENCA, Ecuador) studied the effect of flipping grammar instruction in an EFL course and determined that Flipped Learning is a better method.
- Shilpa Brown and others (Medical College of Georgia) flipped the training of first-year medical students for diagnosis of common ailments with which a doctor faces. They used an audio podcast for the pre-work and found that students were more engaged in critical reasoning discussions.
- Komarraju, Aparna, MD and several others in the Journal of Continuing Education in Health Professionals asked if Flipped Learning would help medical students in a Nuclear Medicine Course. The “survey data…suggested that the flipped method was highly valuable and met attendee educational objectives”.
- Eric E. Goff and others in the Journal of Microbiology and Biology Education did an extensive study comparing traditional classrooms to flipped classrooms in the teaching of cellular respiration. Those students taught using Flipped Learning scored “significantly” better on the exit assessment.
- Cheng-Maw Ho and others found that using Flipped Learning to teach medical students about liver transplants resulted in better understanding of key concepts in the after-care of patients who had a liver transplant. We know that Flipped Learning benefits students and instructors, but in this case, we see that the benefit to the recipients of the student’s learning is life-giving.
- Sri Wulandari (Indonesia) in the Journal of English Teaching Adi Buana, studied the effect of flipping reading instruction and found that Flipped Learning improved reading instruction.
- Martin H. Malin and Deborah I. Ginsberg (Chicago-Kent College of Law) have utilized a flipped class approach for four years for their law school students. Students are assigned both pre-class videos and readings and then class time is used for simulations. The program has been highly successful.
- Jung-ae Kim and others in the International Journal of Internet, Broadcasting and Communication studied the effect of Flipped Learning in an anatomy class. They found significant gains in “Truth seeking (p<.001), Open-mindness (p<.005), Confidence (p<.001), Systematicity (p<.005), Analyticity (p<.001), and Inquisitiveness.”
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